Momwe mungakhalire pulogalamu mu Ubuntu

Momwe mungakhalire pulogalamu mu Ubuntu

Kuyika pulogalamu mu Ubuntu ndi ntchito yosavuta kwambiri. Ubuntu imawonjezera mapulogalamu omwe amadziwika kwambiri mwachisawawa komanso yamphamvu yomwe Linux ili nayo, komabe, ngati tikufuna pulogalamu inayake, titha kuyiyika mosavuta potsatira njira zomwe tikuwonetsa pansipa.

Ku Ubuntu, ndi Linux ambiri, mosiyana ndi kuchuluka kwa mapulogalamu omwe amayikidwa mu Windows, nthawi zambiri sikofunikira kusaka pulogalamuyo pa intaneti, kutsitsa ndikuyika malaibulale ambiri ofunikira kuti agwire bwino ntchito. Tili ndi zosungira (PPA) zomwe zilipo, zomwe ndi mtundu wa nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zomwe zili ndi mapulogalamu onse ndipo nthawi zonse (mochepa) zimasinthidwa. tikhoza kukhazikitsa Phukusi la DEB, kuti tidzapeza izi pa intaneti, Canonical snap kapena Flatpak.

Pali njira zingapo zokhazikitsira pulogalamu mu Ubuntu. Tikuwonetsani kwa inu kuchokera kutsikitsitsa mpaka mulingo wapamwamba kwambiri wa «zovuta».

Ubuntu Software

Ubuntu Software

 

Njira yosavuta komanso yodziwikiratu kuposa zonse ndikugwiritsa ntchito pulogalamuyi. Pamenepo, Ubuntu Software (omwe kale anali Ubuntu Software Center) sichina koma a Foloko kuchokera ku Mapulogalamu a GNOME opangidwa kuti aziyika patsogolo ma phukusi. Mu sitolo iyi tikhoza kufufuza mtundu uliwonse wa phukusi, ndipo idzawoneka ngati ili m'malo ovomerezeka a Ubuntu kapena mu Snapcraft, kumene ma phukusi a snap amaikidwa.

Kuti tiyipeze tiyenera kudina chizindikiro cha Ubuntu Software, chomwe nthawi zambiri chimakhala pagawo lakumbali. Ntchitoyi yagawidwa m'magawo angapo, onse opezeka kuchokera pamwamba:

  • Kumanzere kwa chilichonse tili ndi galasi lokulitsa, komwe tingafufuze.
  • Pakatikati tili ndi zigawo za:
    • Sakatulani (ndi sitolo).
    • Mapulogalamu oyikidwa, pomwe tiwona zomwe tayika, ngakhale kuti mapaketi onse samawoneka.
    • Zosintha, pomwe tiwona zomwe zatsala pang'ono kusinthidwa pakakhala mapaketi atsopano.

Zosankha zowonjezera

Ponena za Ubuntu Software, zikuwoneka kuti ndizofunikira kwa ine kunenanso kuti ndi sitolo adapangidwa kuti aziyika patsogolo paketi za snap. Anthu amtundu wa Ubuntu ndi ma DEB, omwe amakhala ndi ma snaps omwe ali ndi mapulogalamu apamwamba komanso zodalira. Iwo ndi njira, koma mwina sitimakonda. Ngati tisankha kugwiritsa ntchito Ubuntu Software, tiyenera kuyang'ana menyu yotsikira kumanja kumanja. Ndipamene tiwona ngati njira ili mu DEB version; mwachisawawa idzatipatsa phukusi lachidule. Zomwe zimatipangitsa kupanga njira ina.

GNOME Software

Kodi ndiyika bwanji GNOME Software ngati Ubuntu Software ndi yofanana ndipo yakhazikitsidwa kale? Chabwino, chifukwa sichoncho, komanso sichili pafupi ndi kukhalapo. Ubuntu Software ili ndi zoletsa zina ndi filosofi yomwe GNOME Software ilibe. Sitolo yovomerezeka ya Project GNOME imapereka pulogalamuyi popanda kuika patsogolo kapena kubisa chilichonse, kapena ngati kuika patsogolo chinachake chidzakhala njira ya phukusi la DEB, ya moyo wonse. Choyipa chonena za chisankhochi pagawo lachiwiri ndikuti kuti tigwiritse ntchito tiyenera kukhazikitsa sitoloyo ndi njira yomaliza, ndi terminal, ndipo tidzagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zake zonse powonjezera thandizo la Flathub.

GNOME Software

Tikayiyika, GNOME Software ili pafupifupi buku la Ubuntu Software (kwenikweni ndizosiyana). Tidzafufuza ndi galasi lokulitsa, tidzasankha pulogalamu, tidzayang'ana gwero la chiyambi ndipo tidzadina pa Instalar. Zosavuta monga choncho. Vuto lokhalo ndikuti phukusili silikuwoneka mu Ubuntu Software. Ngati tifufuza "pulogalamu ya gnome" ikuwoneka ngati yakhazikitsidwa, koma sichoncho. Tiyenera kuyiyika monga tafotokozera mu gawo la console.

Synaptic Package Manager

Synaptic

Synaptic ndi dongosolo lotsogola kwambiri kukhazikitsa ndi kuchotsa mapulogalamu kuposa Ubuntu Software. Ngakhale zili choncho, chilengedwe ndi chojambula komanso champhamvu kwambiri, ndipo chimakhala ndi mphamvu zonse pa mapulogalamu omwe amaikidwa pa dongosolo, kudalira kwawo ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya phukusi lomwe lingathe kukhazikitsidwa malinga ndi zosowa. Kuyambira Ubuntu 12.04 Synaptic siyiyikidwa mwachisawawa, ndipo ngati tikufuna kuigwiritsa ntchito, tiyenera kuyiyika kuchokera ku Ubuntu Software, kuyang'ana Synaptic, kapena kuchokera ku terminal.

Kuti titsegule Synaptic tidzadina pa chithunzi cha gridi, kapena tidzakanikiza kiyi ya Meta, ndipo tidzafufuza. Synaptic. Ndi manejala uyu titha kukhazikitsa, kuyikanso ndikuchotsa maphukusi m'njira yosavuta. Chophimba cha Synaptic, monga mukuwonera, chagawidwa m'magawo anayi. Awiri ofunikira kwambiri ndi mndandanda womwe umaphatikizapo gawo la gawo (1) kumanzere ndi gawo la phukusi (3) kumanja. Kusankha phukusi pamndandanda kudzawonetsa malongosoledwe ake (4).

Kuti tiike phukusi tisankha gulu, dinani kumanja phukusi lomwe mukufuna ndikusankha Chongani kukhazikitsa kapena tidzadina kawiri pa dzina la phukusi. Tidzalemba motere mapaketi onse omwe tikufuna kuyika mudongosolo ndikudina batani aplicar kuti kuyika kwanu kuyambike. Synaptic imangotsitsa ma phukusi oyenera okha kuchokera ku nkhokwe pa intaneti kapena kuchokera pama media oyika.

Muthanso kugwiritsa ntchito batani kusaka kuti mupeze ma phukusi omwe tikufuna kukhazikitsa. Tikadina batani ili titha kusaka mapulogalamu ndi dzina kapena kufotokozera. Pulogalamu yomwe tikufuna kuyika ikakhala, timadina kawiri kuti tiyiyike. Ngati tikufuna kuchotsa pulogalamu, zonse zomwe tiyenera kuchita ndikudina pomwepo ndikusankha Chotsani o Chotsani kwathunthu.

Nthawi zonse, zosinthazi zidzachitika tikangodina batani la Ikani.

Woyang'anira phukusi la Synaptic, monga Ubuntu Software, imasamalira kuthetsa kudalira kwa phukusi palokha kuti mapulogalamuwa azigwira ntchito moyenera. Momwemonso, ndizotheka kuyisintha kuti iyike phukusi lomwe lingavomereze, popanda kufunsidwa ndi pulogalamuyi, lingakwaniritse zina zowonjezera. Ngati tikufuna kuyambitsa khalidweli titha kupita Kukhazikitsa > mwakonda, ndi mu tabu General fufuzani bokosi Sanjani ma phukusi ovomerezeka monga kudalira.

flatpak ndi snap phukusi

Monga tafotokozera, Ubuntu sagwirizana ndi mapaketi a flatpak atakhazikitsa mwatsopano. M'malo mwake, Canonical sakonda lingalirolo, ndi Ubuntu Software Sichithandizira ngakhale flatpaks.; imasinthidwa kotero kuti chithandizo chitha kuwonjezeredwa kwa icho, kapena osati m'njira yosavuta yomwe idagawidwapo m'gulu la Linux. Maphukusi a Snap amatha kukhazikitsidwa mwachindunji kuchokera ku Ubuntu Software, ndipo kuyika kwawo kumakhala kosavuta monga phukusi lina lililonse, ngakhale kuti akhoza kukhazikitsidwa kuchokera ku terminal monga momwe tidzafotokozera mu mfundo yotsatira.

Chinthucho ndi chosiyana tikafuna kukhazikitsa mapaketi a flatpak. Monga tinafotokozera mu Nkhani iyi, choyamba tiyenera kukhazikitsa phukusi la "flatpak", kenako "gnome-software", popeza sitolo yovomerezeka ya Ubuntu sichimawathandiza, ndiye pulogalamu yowonjezera ya GNOME Software ndiyeno onjezani chosungira cha Flathub. Mukayambiranso, mapaketi a flatpak amawoneka ngati njira mu GNOME Software, koma osati ku Ubuntu Software.

Pankhani yapaketi yamtunduwu, onse snap ndi flatpak ali nawo zonse zofunika (mapulogalamu ndi zodalira) kuti pulogalamuyo igwire ntchito. Ubwino wa iwo ndikuti amasintha mwachangu kwambiri ndikugwira ntchito pakugawa kulikonse kwa Linux, ndipo pali mapulogalamu omwe timangopeza ku Flathub (flatpak) kapena Snapcraft (snap). Ndiwo njira yomwe mungaganizire, koma kukhala nazo zonse ndikofunikira kugwiritsa ntchito GNOME Software.

Kudzera pa console

Pakadali pano tawona njira yowonetsera kukhazikitsa mapulogalamu mu Ubuntu. Kenako tiwona momwe tingachitire zomwezo koma kudzera pa terminal. Ngakhale ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri amachotsedwa ndi chilichonse chokhudzana ndi "zojambula zakuda", muyenera kudziwa kuti njirayi sizovuta konse. M'malo mwake, ndi omasuka ndi yosavuta, ndipo ndithudi mofulumira.

Kuyika mapulogalamu pa Ubuntu ndi njira iyi, chinthu choyamba kuchita ndikutsegula terminal, momveka. Titha kuchita izi kuchokera pazithunzi za gridi kapena kukanikiza kiyi ya Meta ndikufufuza "terminal", ndipo imatsegulidwanso ndikukanikiza makiyi a Ctrl + Alt + T, bola ngati njira yachidule sinasinthidwe, mwina ndi wogwiritsa ntchito kapena chifukwa Canonical imasankha mtsogolo. Kuchokera ku terminal, zomwe tingachite ndi:

  • Kuyika phukusi:
sudo apt install nombre-del-paquete
  • Ikani ma phukusi angapo:
sudo apt install nombre-del-paquete1 nombre-del-paquete2 nombre-del-paquete3
  • Chotsani phukusi:
sudo apt remove nombre-del-paquete
  • Chotsani phukusi ndi mafayilo ake ogwirizana:
sudo apt remove --purge nombre-del-paquete
  • Sinthani mndandanda wamaphukusi omwe akupezeka munkhokwe:
sudo apt update
  • Sinthani mapaketi onse omwe adayikidwa pakompyuta:
sudo apt upgrade
  • Ikani phukusi la snap:
sudo snap install nombre-del-paquete
  • Chotsani phukusi la snap:
sudo snap remove nombre-del-paquete
  • Sinthani phukusi la snap:
sudo snap refresh

Tikangopereka lamulolo, dongosololi likhoza kutifunsa ngati tikufuna kukhazikitsa phukusi lomwe tasankha ndi ena omwe amadalira, kutiwonetsa zambiri monga dzina lake lonse, mtundu wake, kapena kukula kwake. Tiyankha motsimikiza ndikudikirira kuti amalize kukhazikitsa.

.deb phukusi

Ngati china chake chomwe tikufuna kuyika sichipezeka m'malo ovomerezeka, ngakhale ngati snap kapena flatpak, ndizotheka kuti wopanga ake akuchipereka ngati phukusi la .deb. Mwachitsanzo, ngati tikufuna kukhazikitsa msakatuli wa Vivaldi, titha kusaka zonse zomwe tikufuna mu GNOME Software ndipo sitizipeza ngakhale titathandizira kuthandizira mapaketi a flatpak. Chochititsa chidwi n'chakuti, imapezeka m'mabuku ovomerezeka a Manjaro, koma si ambiri mwa iwo chifukwa ali ndi zana (sindikukumbukira ngati 4% kapena 6%) ikufanana ndi mawonekedwe owonetsera omwe sali. gwero lotseguka. Pamapeto pake, ngati tikufuna kukhazikitsa Vivaldi pa Ubuntu tiyenera kutero pogwiritsa ntchito phukusi lake la .deb.

Khalani Vivaldi kapena pulogalamu ina iliyonse, titha kukhazikitsa phukusi lake la DEB potsitsa patsamba lake lovomerezeka ndikuyiyika. Tikhoza kuchita m'njira zosiyanasiyana:

  • Dinani kawiri ndikukhazikitsa kuti zisatsegule. Ubuntu Software mwina idzatsegulidwa.
  • Dinani kumanja ndikusankha "Kuyika Mapulogalamu", yomwe idzatsegule Mapulogalamu a GNOME ngati tiyiyika.
  • Mu terminal, lembani sudo dpkg -i package_name (ndikoyenera kulikokera ku terminal kuti musalakwitse ngati dzinalo ndi lalitali).

Chosangalatsa ndichakuti ambiri mwa mapaketiwa amatiwonjezera kumalo osungiramo ntchitoyo kuti tisinthe mtsogolo.

Awa ndi malekezero a bukhuli pomwe takuwonetsani njira zosiyanasiyana zoyikira phukusi mu Ubuntu. Tikukhulupirira kuti mupeza zothandiza.


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  1.   Pedro anati

    Nkhani yosangalatsa kwa ine, chifukwa ndine wonyozeka ku Ubuntu, ndikukufunsani funso la momwe mungayikitsire Madalaivala. Ndili ndi adaputala ya USB ya TP-Link wifi (Archer T2U) Ndatsitsa madalaivala a Linux patsamba lake lovomerezeka (Archer T2U_V1_150901) koma ?? Sindikudziwa momwe adayikidwira.
    Zikomo ndi zonse

    1.    Luis Gomez anati

      Wawa Pedro, ponena za funso lanu ndiyenera kukuwuzani kuti, monga pafupifupi chilichonse pamakompyuta, zimadalira. Ngati tikulankhula za oyendetsa galimoto, nthawi zambiri pulogalamu kapena pulogalamu imaphatikizidwa yomwe imagwira ntchito yoyiyika pamakina athu. Choyamba, onetsetsani kuti palibe fayilo yowerengera yomwe ikuwonetsa njira zomwe mungatsatire makamaka kwa wowongolera yemwe mukufuna kuwonjezera. Chachiwiri, ndikukuwuzani kuti, ngati mwatsitsa tarball, onetsetsani ngati pali pulogalamu iliyonse yomwe mungayambitse kuchokera pamzere wolamula powonjezerapo zomwe zingachitike.

  2.   tanganidwa anati

    Mu Ubuntu, ndi Umodzi, ndizotheka kuyiyika mwachindunji kuchokera pa Dashboard.

    Zikomo!

  3.   Pedro anati

    Zikomo kwambiri chifukwa chondidziwitsa, sindinawone fayilo iliyonse yowerengera yomwe ikuwonetsa njira zomwe ndiyenera kutsatira, ndidalumikizana ndi TP-Link ndipo samadziwa momwe angandiperekere malangizo oyikira.

  4.   John jackson anati

    Wawa Luis, Zikomo chifukwa chothandizira momveka bwino, mophweka komanso molunjika.

    Ndangoyika mtundu wa Ubuntu 10.10 pa laputopu, vuto lomwe limabweretsa ndikulephera kusewera pa intaneti ngakhale itazindikira ndi kulumikizana ndi WiFi. ndi ethernet ngati ndingathe kusewera, imazindikira ma netiweki a windows ndi zonsezo. Ndi netiweki yopanda zingwe imangotchula kuti yolumikizidwa. Ndidapatsa kale DHCP mwayi wochita ntchitoyi komanso pamanja (IP, Subnet mask, gateway, DNS) ndipo vutoli likupitilirabe.

    Ndinayesetsanso kulemba pa intaneti, koma kuyesaku sikunandigwire.

    Kodi mungandithandizire kudziwa izi.

    Ndithokozeretu

  5.   john jackson anati

    PS ndatsimikiza kale

  6.   Mark Lopez anati

    Zikomo.
    Ndine watsopano ku umunthu uwu, ndayika mtundu wa 16.04 koma ndili ndi vuto kuti zilizonse zomwe ndikufuna kuyika sizikundilola, ndayesa kutonthoza ndipo palibe, mu pulogalamu ya pulogalamuyo palibe, ndimayesa kukhazikitsa synaptic kuchokera ku console ndi zimandiuza kuti palibe woyimira.
    Malingaliro aliwonse?
    Choyamba, Zikomo

  7.   Alfredo anati

    wina amadziwa komwe nditha kutsitsa mtundu wa utorrent kuti utsitse mu armbian ya ubuntu 16.04.2. Ngati wina ali ndi yankho, nditumizireni imelo ili:
    acuesta1996@gmail.com

  8.   Virginia Rose anati

    Moni abwenzi, zikomo kwambiri chifukwa cha zopereka zanu zamtengo wapatali
    Ndili ndi vuto. Diski yanga imagawika mu 3. gawo 1 la ma windons, partiticon2 ndili ndi linux, ndi 3 yogwiritsa ntchito kwambiri, ngati zosunga zobwezeretsera.
    Arta de windons ndi ma virus awo odziwika, ndaganiza zogwiritsa ntchito linux pachilichonse, makamaka kulumikizana ndi intaneti, kukhazikitsa Zorin 9 (kutengera ubuntu)
    x yolakwika phukusi la firefox ndipo sindikudziwa momwe ndingathetsere vutoli
    Ndayesa kale njira zosiyanasiyana, monga kukonzanso zosintha, kusintha, kukhazikitsa firefox x pulogalamu yamapulogalamu.
    uku ndiko kulakwitsa kwanga ndikusintha:

    Zolakwika http://security.ubuntu.com trusty-security / magwero akulu
    Zolakwika http://security.ubuntu.com trusty-security / magwero akulu
    404 Sanapezeke [IP: 91.189.91.26 80]
    Atengedwa 3.547 kB mu 34min 28s (1.714 B / s)
    Kuwerenga phukusi mndandanda ... Wachita
    W: Cholakwika chinachitika pakutsimikizira siginecha.
    Malo osungirawo sanasinthidwe ndipo mafayilo am'mbuyomu adzagwiritsidwa ntchito.
    Cholakwika cha GPG: http://deb.opera.com khazikika InRelease: Ma signature otsatirawa sakanatha kutsimikizika chifukwa kiyi wagulu palibe: NO_PUBKEY D615560BA5C7FF72
    W: Palibe chinsinsi pagulu chopezeka ndi ma ID awa:
    Zamgululi
    W: Yalephera kutenga http://deb.opera.com/opera/dists/stable/InRelease
    W: Yalephera kutenga gzip: /var/lib/apt/lists/partial/ve.archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_trusty-updates_universe_binary-i386_Packages Hash Sum mismatch
    W: Yalephera kutenga http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/dists/stable/Release Sitinathe kupeza 'main / binary-i386 / Packages' mu fayilo yotulutsidwa (Zosayenera. Mndandanda wolowera kapena fayilo yolakwika)
    W: Yalephera kutenga http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/dists/trusty-security/main/source/Sources 404 Sanapezeke [IP: 91.189.91.26 80]
    W: Mafayilo ena amalozera sanathe kutsitsa. Zinyalanyazidwa, kapena zakale zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo mwake.

    mlanduwo ndikuti poyesa kuyikanso umataya cholakwikacho.
    Chonde ngati wina angandithandize !!!

    1.    David yeshael anati

      Moni Rosa, kuchokera pazomwe ndikuwona, zimakuponyerani izi chifukwa sizingapeze adilesiyi, popeza kulibenso.
      «Cholakwika http://security.ubuntu.com trusty-security / magwero akulu
      Zolakwika http://security.ubuntu.com trusty-security / Magwero Aakulu »
      "404 Sanapezeke [IP: 91.189.91.26 80]".
      Chachiwiri ndikuti simunalandireko mafungulo a opera
      «Cholakwika cha GPG: http://deb.opera.com khazikika InRelease: Ma signature otsatirawa sakanatha kutsimikizika chifukwa kiyi wagulu palibe: NO_PUBKEY D615560BA5C7FF72 ″

      Mutha kutiwonetsa mndandanda wazomwe mungapeze, mumachita ndi:
      paka /etc/apt/source.list