Isebenza njani imvume yefayile kwiLinux (I)

iimvume zefayile ye-linux

Los iifayile kunye neemvume zesikhombisi ziyinxalenye ebalulekileyo ehlabathini GNU / Linux, kwaye zenza elinye lamalungu azuzwe njengelifa kwizinto ezazikho kwi-Unix iminyaka. Inani elithile labasebenzisi ekuye kwafuneka bajongane nenyani yokufikelela kweliqonga ngaxa lithile okanye elinye, yenye yezo zinto zithintela kwaye zibeka imbeko, kodwa njengayo yonke into ebomini kulula ukuyiqonda ukuba siyapha uncedo olulungileyo.

Kule posi siza kuzama ukucoca amathandabuzo athile, kwaye sicace gca, sisiseko kwaye sibaluleke kangangoko ukuze wonke umntu aqale ukuqonda isebenza njani imvume yefayile kunye nesikhombisi kwi-GNU / Linux. Ayisosikhokelo siphezulu, ke abo sele benamava kwesi sihloko banokulandela, kuba siya kuzama ukucaca kunye neenkcukacha kwabo baqala ukuqala kule nkqubo yokusebenza, okanye abo bathe besebenzisa Eli qonga ixesha elithile alinakufunda oku kakuhle.

Into yokuqala yokuyiqonda yile iimvume zahlulwe zangamaqela amathathu: umnini, iqela kunye nabanye, ezimele imvume yokungena eya kuba nomnini wefayile okanye isikhombisi, esiya kuba nomsebenzisi okweqela elilelo fayile okanye isikhombisi, kwaye esiya kuba nabanye abasebenzisi benkqubo. Ukujonga ezi mvume singaya nakwesiphi na isikhombisi kwaye senze oku kulandelayo:

ls -l

Siza kubona ngokufanayo nento esinayo kumfanekiso ophezulu wale post, apho sinolwazi olumelweyo kwimiqolo eliqela nakwiikholamu. Eyokugqibela isibonisa into efana nale -rw-r-r- 1 ingcambu yengcambu 164 Nov 11 2014 xinitrc, Kwaye into esiyibona kakuhle ngasekhohlo yiyo eya kuba nomdla kuthi kakhulu ukuqala ukuqonda ukuba singazilawula njani iimvume. Ikholamu yokuqala isibonisa izithuba ezili-10, nganye kuzo inentsingiselo eyahlukileyo kuxhomekeke ekubeni ihlala:

  • b: isixhobo sebhloko
  • c: isixhobo somlinganiswa (umzekelo / dev / tty1)
  • d: isikhombisi
  • l: ikhonkco lokomfuziselo (umzekelo / usr / bin / java -> / ikhaya / iinkqubo / iJava / jre / bin / java)
  • p: igama lombhobho (umzekelo / proc / 1 / iimephu)
  • - imvume ayabelwe
  • r: ukufunda
  • w: ukubhala
  • x: ukwenziwa

U-d uya kubakho kuphela kwindawo yokuqala ukusuka ngasekhohlo, kwaye oko kuthetha ukuba into ekuthethwa ngayo sisikhombisi, ke kwimeko yokuba sinesithuba esinehayikhoni «-» siya kuba ngaphambili kwifayile. Kamva, Izithuba ezisithoba ezilandelayo zahlulwe zangamaqela amathathu ezithathu, kwaye iodolo ihlala ilandelayo: rwx, emele ukubhala, funda kwaye wenze iimvume zomnini, iqela kunye nabanye (abanye) ngokwahlukeneyo..

Oku kulandelayo linani elibonisa inani lamaqhagamshelo kule fayile okanye isikhombisi, inani elihlala li-1, ngamanye amaxesha inokuba ngu-2 kunye ezimbalwa, ubuncinci, inelinye inani. Ayinamsebenzi okwangoku, okanye ubuncinci ayibalulekanga kwinjongo yethu yokufumana iimvume zefayile kwiLinux, ke masiqhubeke nenkundla elandelayo kuba oku kunomdla kuthi ngenxa yokuba 'ingcambu' esiyibonayo apho ithetha ukuba ungumnini yale fayile, kunye 'neengcambu' esizibonayo kwikholamu yesine zithetha ukuba le fayile ikwangakwingcambu 'yeqela'. Ke amasimi alandelayo amele ubungakanani be-inode, umhla kunye negama lefayile okanye ulawulo.

Ngale ngcaciso engqondweni siya kuba nakho ukuqala ukuqonda oku kulandelayo, oko kukuthi igama lokuchazwa kwamanani kwiimvume, into eqheleke kakhulu kwi-GNU / Linux, BSD kunye nezinye * iinkqubo ze-nix. Ukongeza, eli gama lokutyumba liza kusinceda ukuba sitshintshe iimvume zefayile ngokukhawuleza sisebenzisa umyalelo we-chmod, kwaye yile nto siza kuyibona kwesinye isithuba kodwa okwangoku singagxila koku kulandelayo: Ukufunda imvume kuthetha ukuba sinokubona imixholo yale fayile okanye isikhombisi, ukubhala kuthetha ukuba sinemvume yokuguqula ifayile okanye ulawulo kunye nemvume yokuphumeza kuthetha ukuba singayenza ifayile okanye, ukuba sijonge isikhombisi, esinokuthi sikhangele kuyo. (Oko kukuthi, yenza "ls"). Oku kuchaza ukuba kutheni iifayile ezisisiseko kwinkqubo, ezinje nge / usr /, / usr / bin okanye / usr / lib zenze imvume zivunyelwe kodwa zingabhali mvume ngaphandle komniniyo, kuba ngale ndlela bonke abasebenzisi banokwenza yonke imiyalelo kodwa benze ungaguquli okanye ucime nantoni na de sinikwe ezo mvume okanye sibe 'yingcambu' ngomyalelo 'su'.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
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  1.   Javier sitsho

    Inqaku elihle !! Ukubulisa

  2.   Mara sitsho

    Ndicaphukile kulwazi!